The Significance of Late Scientific Discoveries
The threshold of the twentieth century marks a time when the thoughts, accomplishments, and expectations of men are expanded as never before. The era is entirely unique, for there is nothing in history that is worthy of a comparison. Scientific discoveries in new directions, and through fields hitherto unexplored, are flashing their illumined messages before us in such an unbroken procession that we are almost dazed at their import. We stand peering into the future, and exclaim with fervid intensity: What next? Nature, as if seized with an unwonted prodigality, is yielding up her choicest secrets and lavishing her riches upon us. The rigid dogmatisms of the past, whether philosophical, scientific, social, or religious, are becoming fluidized and conforming their now plastic shapes to the harmonious outlines of cosmical law and orderly divine interpretation. Forces and principles which patient analyzers have traced and followed in different directions, until they were lost in unrelated byways, are being compared, harmonized, and unified. A general synthetic philosophy, for which the world owes much to Spencer, is gaining sanction and confirmation. Variety in unity is the present and future inspiration. No finished creation, no incoherence, nothing unrelated, but a warm, living, unfolding social organism, all inclusive in its proportions, is objectified by the collective human consciousness. No endless conglomeration of disconnected lives, orders, species, families, and kingdoms, but One Life, pulsating through all, even though expressed through manifold individuation, form, and consciousness. Spirit and matter, God and man, and all nature thus have their respective parts, relations, and interactions in the cosmic economy. The growing and now almost acknowledged monistic philosophy of the present time was not possible at an earlier date. Evolutionary knowledge and interpretation has but recently arrived at such a goal.
The writer of this essay does not claim to have made any original scientific investigation in physics, or to possess the technical equipment of a specialist in that department. His effort is only to trace and interpret the logical significance of recent tendencies and discoveries which have been announced by some of the most eminent exponents of science and philosophy, or in other words to give utterance to what is now "in the air" and outline a "feeling" which is rapidly coming into the general consciousness.
The great mountain of systematic Truth is being ascended by well-trained explorers on every side. Formerly, each scientific department confined itself to its own little hillock, and looked askance across a chasm at all the others. There was an abundance of specialization but little or no synthesis. Geology, astronomy, biology, chemistry, and all the natural sciences each fenced off its own domain, and trespassing was not expected. But climbers on all sides of the great summit of human attainment are now, as they toil upward, coming consciously face to face. The logician is beginning to respect the intuitionalist, the "hard-headed" scientist complacently finds himself supplemented by the idealist, the educator seeks the aid of the psychologist, and the physicist is rather happily surprised to find in his own latest researches that his very solid and real "matter," without any loss, is dissolving into ether—and perhaps into spirit. As all roads once led to Rome, so now all the paths of scientific exploration are converging into monism. They are like a mass of many colored intricate strands that may be systematically gathered and twisted into a strong cable, secure and unbreakable. As each investigator brings in his special contribution to the great shining mass of related knowledge, thus rounding its fair proportions, the faces of all become radiant with unwonted sympathy and wonderment. Each has laid his tribute upon the altar of a social universe, a divine living organism.
The crass materialism which formerly characterized scientific research is rapidly fading, and, although human interpretations of Divinity still vary widely, a blank atheism is now exceedingly rare. The solidity of matter has departed, and whether a given substance presents itself to the senses in a solid, fluid, or gaseous state is found to be a mere question of temperature and compression. Thus from the sensuous and concrete as well as from the more abstract view-point, distinctions are but provisional and incidental, and the former supposed chasm between the seen and the unseen is not only bridged but filled. The visible and invisible, the audible and inaudible, material and immaterial, are but terms bestowed upon our narrow sensuous limitations. To modern science they have no absolute significance, but merely indicate variable and interchangeable rates of etheric vibration.
The great land-slide from dualism toward monism has been very rapid, and it has come as a logical sequence of the evolutionary philosophy. This could not have resulted had evolution continued as materialistic in its basic principles, as it was forty years ago. So long as mind and spirit were regarded as mere properties of organized matter, or even as its antithesis, the dualistic philosophy was logically reasonable. Then science insisted upon considering all phenomena only in terms of matter. The higher and later evolution now locates progress in mind and life, and each grade indexes or outwardly articulates itself by corresponding physical forms. The ichthyosauri have become extinct, not because such marine reptiles have come to nothing, but for the reason that that peculiar quality of mind or life has advanced, and therefore expresses itself in a higher embodiment. A particular form is dropped when no longer suitable for fitting expression. The "conservation of energy" forbids that any force shall perish. The body of a tiger is not an arbitrary structure, having an attenuated property called life, but rather an expressive instrument shaped from within, in every detail, to obey the mandates of a feline cunning, ferocity and cruelty. Under the monistic philosophy, it follows that the finer vibrations in all organisms control and externally manifest themselves by those of greater crudity. It will be readily noted that such an order of operation involves no dualism. A short time ago, psychology, now rapidly developing into a science, was but little known, and was looked upon as beyond the scope of proper scientific research. It had no recognized orderly relations, and no governing laws in its methods and phenomena.
It is true that there yet remain many scientists who avowedly are monists, and yet whose monism is cast in material limitations and terminology. Perhaps this is largely the result of a conventional habit of describing things, for under it they must include the ether itself. Ideas are more subtly and rapidly changed than are the fitting terms for their exact expression. Habits are persistent. Whatever matter may be in the abstract, materialism signifies more a quality of human consciousness than an exact definition of objective substance.
The former supposition that matter is "dead stuff" has passed as thoroughly as the assumption before noted that spirit and matter are antipodal in their nature and essence. The more subtle and startling discoveries in modern science seem to be making a steady approach toward a spiritual monadology much like that so ably advocated by Leibnitz. Everything from the atom up to the largest organism possesses a soul, or more exactly is a soul. "If our intellectual action," says Professor DuBois of the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale College, " finds physical expression in nature, and not only reason but imagination is found to be an aid in physical investigation—may we not retrace our steps, and again define all science as the verification of the ideal in nature!'
All the processes in nature are vital rather than mechanical. It was formerly believed that the rising of the sap in a tree was due to a mere capillary attraction or chemical activity. Biologists now generally admit that it is due to a living vital force. The natural inference seems to be that these various orders of organic life possess some degree of intelligence. When confined by the cleft of a rock, this force in a tree, under certain conditions, will exert an immense pressure and split it asunder. Vines will lift great weights, and roots will run for a long distance through dry sand, or along the surface of bare rock, to find congenial moisture and nutriment. The crystal is our relative, and is expressing vital and orderly discrimination. After its own method and fashion it is chanting a hymn of praise to its eternal Designer and Artificer. Everything in its own rhythm is joining in a universal chorus. Emerson thus discourses of expression:—
"All form is an effect of character; all condition, of the quality of life. Here we find ourselves, suddenly, not in a critical speculation, but in a holy place, and should go very warily and reverently. We stand before the secret of the world, there where Being passes into Appearance, and Unity into Variety. The universe is an externalization of the soul. Since everything in nature answers to a moral power, if any phenomenon remains brute and dark, it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active."
The monistic philosophy of today teaches that spirit and matter are but different aspects or vibrations of one primal energy, and this truth is rapidly coming into the consciousness of the deepest thinkers of the world. On page 35, in "Matter, Ether, and Motion," Professor Dolbear in speaking of the ether says: "It does not seem proper to call it matter." He further suggests as a specific name the term "substance." If it stands under everything, this seems very suitable.
The logical result of the higher evolutionary philosophy appears to be in full accord with these conclusions. While there is some variation in details, the same result in the main is fortified by such names as Spinoza, Leibnitz, Hegel, Hartmann, and by the most eminent names of this generation, including Spencer, Haeckel, Cope, and many others that might be enumerated. Spencer's philosophy does not teach the priority of matter as related to mind, but at the most, that it is a parallel or concomitant development. Mind, force and matter, to him, are all manifestations or states of one inscrutable and universal principle—the "Unknowable." The essential unity, harmony, and interrelation of all phenomena, physical, mental, and spiritual, inclusively having their roots in the Deity, is evidently the grand truth which is not only to reconcile, but to solidify, science and religion.
The structure of the atom—the theoretical unit of matter—remains an unsolved problem. No chemist or physicist has yet been able to shed any light upon it. Regarding the relativity of atoms in space, in the descending scale, Professor W. S. Jevons in the "Principles of Science" says (page 146): "Scientific method leads us to the inevitable conception of an infinite series of successive orders of infinitely small quantities. If so, there is nothing improbable in the existence of a myriad universes within the compass of a needle's point, each with its stellar systems and its suns and planets in number and variety unlimited. Science does nothing to reduce the number of strange things that we may believe." One is reminded of the former theological specutions of the schoolmen regarding the number of angels that could dance upon the point of a needle. If we might count "angels" as atoms, science may seem more extravagant than theology. Said Professor DuBois, in a lecture before the Bridgeport Scientific Society:—
"We admit as a physical fact, that at least within certain undefined limits in our organism, matter obeys will, and brain particles move at the impulse of volition. Now, molecules, the physicist tells us, are separated by spaces indefinitely great as compared to the size of the molecules themselves, and these spaces are filled with ether, which condenses around the molecules like the atmosphere about the earth. Within the limits of the cranium, then, we may conceive of a whole solar system in miniature. The whole great Universe with its suns and systems is represented in those tiny, whirling, moving brain particles. Now, upon one of these little brain particles, separated by an immense relative distance from its neighbors, let us imagine a race of tiny, intelligent beings like ourselves, to live. One of these little homunculus looks off from his tiny earth, with his tiny telescope, as we do from ours, and observes motions and bodies moving hither and thither."
But there is now a rapidly growing disposition among investigators to conclude that, in the last analysis, the atom may not be material at all. Instead of a tiny solid speck it is probably but a vibratory point of etheric force. No atom could be so tiny that its subdivision may not be conceived. Is it then a metaphysical abstraction, instead of a physical reality? If so, modern science may yet come to a virtual endorsement of the monadism of Leibnitz. All that we know of matter to which we apply terms is merely the experience of our own mental reaction or state of consciousness. Our names for sound, odor, color, extension and resistance are simply the names of our own sensations. They are really terms of mind, and are unthinkable when disconnected from it. There can be no noise where there are no ear-drums. The aural organ is only an interpreter of a vibratory phenomenon, which in the abstract is entirely beyond description, except as we label it vibration. The impressions above enumerated are therefore seen to have no objective exactitude. If this be idealism, it is truly logical; and who will aver that it is not scientific? Even so conservative and materialistic a philosopher as Haeckel says: "The opponents of the doctrine of evolution are very fond of branding the monistic philosophy as c materialism,' by confusing philosophical materialism with the wholly different and censurable moral materialism. Strictly, however, monism might as accurately be called spiritualism as materialism." But his monism seems incomplete, and to lack the omnipresent intelligence and coherence which at least is implied in Spencer's "Unknowable." Haeckel finds all potentiality wrapped up in each atom. He invests them individually with psychical qualities, including intelligence, volition, sensation, and desire, with unceasing duration. But the human mind will never be satisfied with any atomic theory as the basis for primary causation. Man is so constituted that he is restless until he finds a Cause which is unitary, all-inclusive, intelligent, and beneficent. The fact that such a demand is found in every detail of his nature—in fact, that he is made for it—is conclusive evidence, in itself, of its truth. It would do violence to all logic to deny that which has been written in him as the law of his constitution. Sings Goethe:—
Nature in Him, Himself in nature cherish;
So that what in Him lives, and moves, and is,
Doth ne'er His power nor e'er His spirit miss.
After noting the convergence of philosophy, science, and religion at the present time, in fact their virtual cooperation, Professor DuBois remarks: "The inspired assertions of a Paul, the insight of the poets from Goethe and Pope to Wordsworth and Tennyson, may be found reflected in the pages of Darwin and Spencer and Huxley and Fiske. Inspiration, imagination, science—here all agree. The 'carpenter theory' has gone forever." It may be not so very important whether that all-inclusive Eternal Intelligence be called, "The Power that makes for Righteousness," "The Infinite and Eternal Energy, from which all things proceed," The Universal Spirit, or God. The vital point is, what ideal do these various terms convey to men's minds? In his poem, "Each and All," Emerson voiced one of his ideal concepts:—
Full of light and of Deity;
Beauty through my senses stole;
I yielded myself to the perfect whole.
The evolutionary philosophy, having been largely cleansed of its former materialism, is now recognized, even in its lower ranges, as being psychical in its sovereignty, rather than mechanical, structural, and physical. Its accomplishments are from living centers rather than through outward accretion. The whole educational curriculum for organisms, upon every plane, would seem to be expressed in the single term, aspiration. This innate tendency is of course aided by the reaction of environment. Differentiation and natural selection are but provisional and auxiliary methods. Among the more recent scientists, Professor Cope very plainly places structural organisms as resultant expressions of preceding and formative psychical concepts and necessities. He says, "The entire process of ascending evolution appears to be dependent on the presence of mind, that is consciousness, in its successive stages, from the simple to the complex." More concretely, it might be stated that thought and ideals find articulation in a cruder material, or rather in a cruder aspect of the same material. "As is the inner, so is the outer." "Rising from phenomena to cause," says Frederic Harrison, "is but the translation of sensation into reality. And this reality is a mental fact." Mind is noumenal and structure phenomenal. Modern scientific thought, not only among psychologists, but among biologists and naturalists, is tending strongly in the same direction. It follows that bodies do not build minds, but that the latter, by a universal law, seek external embodiment and manifestation. This order seems to guarantee the independent existence and continuance of mind. It is obvious that if mind were but a property of organization, it would be purely a dependent, and conditioned as to action and duration by the integrity of the outer structure. The significance of this principle on the human plane can be easily inferred. If mind be primary, it follows that when its organized structure or embodiment becomes unsuitable, and is laid off, only a form of expression has been forfeited.
But the foregoing fragmentary outlines of certain aspects of the monistic philosophy deal only with the border-land of the great subject. The grand modern problem and mystery lies wrapped up in the universal ether. Nothing exists without some base, and scientific monism now finds the foundation of all phenomena in this elusive all-pervasive medium. The greatest of all future developments in human research seem to be those which are involved in its nature, uses, and significance. If there be atoms, this is beyond and back of them. Everything indicates that all bodies float in it and are of it. Is it mind, or matter, or neither? Scientists are in substantial agreement that it is an all-abounding frictionless medium of wonderful density, which conveys waves or vibrations that our senses translate as light, and also those phenomena known as magnetism, electricity, and gravitation.
The hypothesis that vortex rings in the ether form the basis of all atoms, in whatever aggregation, is gaining ground, and is of wonderful import. What we know as matter would thereby be resolved into ether manifested in varying rates and modes of vibration. Logically, matter as matter thereby disappears. It becomes in the last analysis only "a mode of motion." While no energy is ever lost, the vibration and form of all bodies depend upon atomic and molecular activity, and are subject to transformation and transition. Through a knowledge of electrical, chemical, magnetic, and mechanical laws, man is able so to manipulate existing vibrations as to produce new combinations with precision.
There always has been a very natural and intense curiosity in the human mind regarding the nature of the atom, and the possibility of bridging the chasm between it and that which is beyond. Tennyson beautifully voices this in his familiar lines:—
I pluck you out of the crannies,
I hold you here, root and all, in my hand,
Little flower—but if I could understand
What you are, root and all, and all in all,
I should know what God and man is.
Says Sir Isaac Newton, near the close of his "Principia:"—
"And now we might add something concerning a most subtle spirit which pervades and lies hid in all gross bodies; by the force and action of which spirit the particles of bodies mutually attract one another at near distances and cohere if contiguous; and electric bodies operate to greater distances as well repelling as attracting the neighboring corpuscles, and light is emitted, reflected, inflected, and heats bodies; and all sensation is excited, and the members of animal bodies move at the command of the will, namely, by the vibrations of this spirit mutually propagated along the solid filaments of the nerves from the outward organs of sense to the brain, and from the brain to the muscles."
The term "spirit" he evidently uses in the sense of something not material in its nature. Science avers that every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle, and it is generally agreed that for such action some universal medium is absolutely essential. Not long ago, the president of one of our leading universities, in an after-dinner speech, said, "Out of the research of chemists and biologists there is unfolding something which might as well be called Love, as by any other name." Is there a correspondence between what we call attraction on the lower planes and love on the higher? or in other words, is love the voluntary, individuated, higher manifestation of a universal etheric substance? Turning, for a moment, in this connection to a spiritual phraseology, we are reminded, that God is omnipresent, and that "God is Love."
If the ether be super-material, and the atom but a vortex wave or vibration of the same, we seem to arrive at the border-land of a spiritual universe. Owing to the anthropomorphism of the past, science, for a little time, may prefer to use some such term as "Eternal Energy" in place of God, as a matter of habit, but of what wonderful significance is the convergence of recent human ideas! Putting aside all dogmatisms, is science about to become religious and religion scientific? Such a unification would be, perhaps, the most startling and inspiring step in human evolution that we can imagine.
That all phenomena are but varying aspects of etheric vibration is coming to be quite generally conceded. This is the most logical interpretation of all molecular action and transformation. It is understood that Lord Kelvin has technically demonstrated such a hypothesis.
For some of the generalizations of this chapter, and also for a few of the quotations from scientific authorities, the writer desires to make his acknowledgments to Dr. C. T. Stockwell of Springfield, Mass., whose very interesting articles upon this subject were published in 1897. He reports Tesla as saying, that: "Nature has stored up in the universe an infinite amount of energy. The eternal recipient and transmitter of this energy is the ether. The electro-magnetic theory of light and all the facts observed teach us that electric phenomena and the ether are identical." Also that Professor Hemstreet, in writing of these views of Tesla, says: "Now call this energy God's mind and the ether God's body, then we have the secret of eternal life and the process of cosmic evolution...God in the ether is no more strange than a soul in the body...Mind in ether is no more strange than mind in flesh and blood."
Under such an hypothesis, thought transference becomes both rational and scientific. Thought-waves go out through the ethereal medium, and their impact sets up a sympathetic vibration in the mind and brain of other organisms, or perhaps more especially in the particular one to whom they are specifically projected. Many other psychical phenomena, heretofore looked upon as supernatural, or at least strange, would here find lawful basis and interpretation. Could we intelligently apply the universality of law, there would be nothing strange in the whole cosmic economy.
Note the significance of the following quotations from eminent scientists:—
"If it be true that one must struggle to find words to convey one's thought with reference to the physical phase or phases of the ether, how much truer it is when attempt is made to suggest how it may be that from these vortex atoms, with their inner or nonvortical modes of motion, an organism, like man, with all the attending physical and psychical phenomena, is built up. God has nothing but his own perfect substance to make worlds (and all that they contain) out of."
"Matter, therefore, is not only divine, but it is the crowning act of divine love and self-sacrifice. It is God giving away himself for man to use, to enjoy, to govern."
"Further than this, it is in perfect accord with the law of all parenthood, of the very substance of God himself, that we, his children, body as well as soul, come. Thus, verily we are c begotten, not made'; being of one substance, and children because we are so in very deed and truth."
"Putting this latest truth of science into nineteenth century language," says Calthrop, "we say God has nothing but himself to make his children out of. They are spirit because he is spirit. They live because he lives. They inherit into his love, his wisdom, his eternity. There is only one mind, and they share it; only one life, and in that life they live; only one spirit, and they are spirit." "In him we live and move and have our being."
"A God whom we may possibly approach in some far-off tomorrow is to give place to a God in whose bosom we rest, the presence of whose life and love we daily and hourly feel. God the ultimate fact and spirit, the sure foundation on which all things rest; this is the thought of the twentieth century, into which we of the nineteenth have just made our entry."
We need not claim, dogmatically, that the ether is God, but everything seems logically to point to the conclusion that it is at least his most universal, intimate and primal self-expression. We lawfully think of all phenomena as his thought made objective. If all forms, whether solid, fluid, or gaseous, are but differing vibrations of one substance, we must conclude that that portion of them with which the human senses come most in contact belong to the relatively cruder subdivision. This, not in any baser moral sense, but in an unfolding order of progression, as being less advanced. Undeveloped man is more intimate with them. The intuitive penetration of the world has counted matter as "gross" or "brute," not because it is bad in itself, but because it is associated with the first steps of human unfoldment. Spiritual progress, therefore, lies in the direction of finer and still finer vibrations, both individuated, and as ruling in the consciousness. The primary or deific vibration may be not only basic, but the finest of all.
How many spiritual bodies, within each other, of ever increasing refined vibrative quality make up structural man we may not estimate. But progress seems to be manifested by a successive casting off of the outer and cruder, for the next in succession, as soon as its educational purpose is served. If reincarnation be true (regarding which no opinion is here advanced), it would seem to be for the reason that such an educational purpose had not been fully completed. It seems normal that soul or mind must have an objective experience and embodiment in matter, or more correctly in a material consciousness. Browning has expressed this thought:—
To try the soul's strength on.
By this consciousness it is seemingly—not really—distanced from God, its primal source. Is it, that in working its way back through an educational discipline of free but experimental choices, it may develop an intelligent appreciation, recognition, and love for its universal counterpart and Reality—the "Father's House"? Man never can get away from God except in consciousness.
If the casting off of a cruder form of bodily expression for one more refined, which is already enclosed within it (conventionally called death), be progress, may there not be more such transitions before ideal and perfect divine oneness is attained? Science would then define "death" as the utilization of an embodiment of finer etheric vibration. And now let us consecrate the ether, and even matter, and no longer regard anything as "common and unclean."
The cosmos is a living cosmos, and the mind of man, as a spiritual dynamo, has relations and attractions with every part of the whole macrocosm. In speaking of this relation from the scientific view-point, Professor DuBois exclaims, "What limit can we set to man's action?" And further: "So far as we understand the constitution of the universe we live in, it is made sensitive to will, and through its whole extent it thrills at the touch of spirit hands. The action of man's will in such an universe may accomplish any conceivable result."
The divine idealism of Emerson, as yet scantily appreciated, voices a similar thought:—
Dissolving all that fixture is,
Melts things that be to things that seem,
And solid nature to a dream.
What a day it will be for the world when science fully accepts the unity of all force and the underlying oneness of all phenomena, whether physical or spiritual! God will be found to be "All in All," in reality, and this will not be pantheism. As soon as science and religion become fully unified a great revival of both will follow. God, Love, Mind and Life fill all space. When such a consciousness is cultivated, it virtually reveals a new universe. It comes with the opening of a new human ideal, a fresh visual faculty. The observer feels an all-inclusive, dynamic, pulsating Life, with which he is filled, and in which he is enclosed. All limitations, historic, dogmatic, formal and scholastic, are pushed back and the horizon infinitely widened. "Old things have passed away and behold all things have become new." God is not only "personal," with all that term implies, but infinitely more. All being is spiritual Being. If the ether be the manifestation of spirit, wherever the former is, the latter, being its cause, must persist. Nothing is "secular" because everything is sacred and divine. Nothing is supernatural because everything is normal. There is no death and no inanimate matter. The cosmos is filled with poetry, intuition, emotion, and brotherhood. The supposed coldness of mathematical and all other exact scientific truth is transformed into a warm, rhythmical responsiveness.
In man, nearness, oneness and God-likeness are to be unfolded through a progressive recognition of their inherent truth and normality. Evolution gains its dynamic force through an all-pervading spirit of hopeful endeavor, or, in other words, an ideal which is always an impelling forward attraction. As Emerson puts it:—
Mounts through all the spires of form.
As our former ideas regarding the impenetrability of matter give place to the reality of etheric vibration, other new and startling probabilities open before us. "Solidity" is a mere sensuous illusion. Says Dr. R. G. Eccles, in quoting from Maxwell: "The most solid steel is built of molecules that are not and cannot be in actual contact with each other. They exist in it like a cloud of gnats or flies, and only appear one instead of many, because they move together as in a mass." Thus it is with all "solid" bodies. When the rhythm favors, bodies can pass freely through each other. Jevons, in his "Principles of Science," remarks, "For anything that we can know to the contrary, there may be, right here and now, passing through us, and this world, some planet invisible to us, with mountains, oceans, lakes, rivers, cities and inhabitants." Dr. Young also suggests that "there are worlds, perhaps pervading each other, unseen and unknown, in the same space."
In one of the series of Bridgewater Treatises, the late Professor Babbage compares the ether to "a vast library on whose pages is registered all that man ever said or woman whispered." There are untold myriads of sound, color, and light waves, of which our dull senses take no cognizance. There are other etheric waves, innumerable, which are utterly incomprehensible to us with our present equipment. The voices of nature "rest not night or day" from chanting the glory of the Creator, as displayed in all his works. Every form of beauty is his thought in translation. In proportion as our thought-forms come into at-one-ment, he finds human expression. If the ether possesses infinite dynamic vitality and spiritual correspondence, it is like an eternal reservoir containing all divine potentiality for man.
Before the term "omnipresent" could have any vital meaning to humanity in general, it was necessary that religion and spirituality should be reinforced by science and philosophy. The infinite boundaries of space—hitherto called empty—are filled with God; and if with God, then with Love, Life, Intelligence, Wisdom, Beneficence, Poetry, Beauty, Cohesion, Energy and Truth. The Father gives all—Himself— to his children. All spirits are embraced in Spirit. Matter is resolved into an appearance. All things cease to have separateness, for nothing exists but Being.